Sociology as social emancipatory science.
Economic, political, and cultural transformations in the West since the eighteenth century, such as the Industrial and French Revolutions, have shown significant changes in life in society in relation to their past forms, based mainly on traditions.
Thus arises Sociology in the middle of the eighteenth century, with the first social research and the general ideas of the Enlightenment, as a way of understanding and explaining those social changes. Hence, Sociology is a historically dated science and its emergence is linked to the consolidation of modern capitalism.
This discipline marks a change in the way social reality is thought, detaching itself from transcendental preoccupations and gradually differentiating itself from other sciences as a rational and systematic way of understanding society.
Contrary to the philosophical explanations of social relations, the explanations of sociology do not simply depart from cabinet speculation, based at best on the casual observation of some facts. For the explanations, statistical methods, empirical observation and methodological neutrality are used.
As a science, Sociology must obey the same general principles valid for all branches of scientific knowledge, despite the peculiarities of social phenomena when compared with the phenomena of nature and, consequently, of the scientific approach of society.
Sociology, considering the kind of knowledge it produces, can serve different kinds of interests. Sociological production may be geared to engendering a form of knowledge committed to human emancipation. It can be a kind of knowledge oriented towards the promotion of men's better understanding of themselves, to achieve greater levels of political freedom and social welfare.
On the other hand, Sociology can be oriented as a "order science", that is, its results can be used to improve the mechanisms of domination by the State or minority groups, whether private companies or intelligence agencies, in defiance of the interests and values of the democratic community with a view to maintaining the status quo .Reference source, studies and research: http://brasilescola.uol.com.br/sociologia/formacao-da-sociologia.htm
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